In the previous post, I explained that Otzi descended in large part from early adopters of agriculture in the Middle East or nearby. What I'll explain in further posts is that Otzi was not a genetic anomaly: he was part of a wave of agricultural migrants that washed over Europe thousands of years ago, spreading their genes throughout. Not only that, Otzi represents a halfway point in the evolutionary process that transformed Paleolithic humans into modern humans.
Did Agriculture in Europe Spread by Cultural Transmission or by Population Replacement?
There's a long-standing debate in the anthropology community over how agriculture spread throughout Europe. One camp proposes that agriculture spread by a cultural route, and that European hunter-gatherers simply settled down and began planting grains. The other camp suggests that European hunter-gatherers were replaced (totally or partially) by waves of agriculturalist immigrants from the Middle East that were culturally and genetically better adapted to the agricultural diet and lifestyle. These are two extreme positions, and I think almost everyone would agree at this point that the truth lies somewhere in between: modern Europeans are a mix of genetic lineages, some of which originate from the earliest Middle Eastern agriculturalists who expanded into Europe, and some of which originate from indigenous hunter-gatherer groups including a small contribution from neanderthals. We know that modern-day Europeans are not simply Paleolithic mammoth eaters who reluctantly settled down and began farming.
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